перевод на русский
Reforming spent on municipal services’ housing sphere has caused reforming of housing sphere objects management.
For the period of applying economical reforms (90th years of XX century) transformations to housing sphere only strengthened wider rights of citizens on liberty of habitation choice. Since market transformations are just made, reforming of the housing sphere itself has just began.
Privatization of separate premises inside of inhabited apartment houses has only aggravated ownerless position of an available housing since the problem of law relations in housing sphere sharpened. The problem of privatization of habitation should aim to finding the uniform owner on an apartment house, having economical and legal interest in its safety and reproduction.
Privatization of apartments is not creation of the civilized market of an available housing. It is only firmer strengthening of citizens’ constitutional right on dwelling. Practically all privatized available housing of republic is on states specialized organizations’ balance. There is no «Proprietor of an available housing ». During long time the aspiration of people on purchase in the property of an available housing was emasculated. The concept of " the Profitable house » is lost.
The main task of housing sphere reforming is creation of an available housing market, which is practically absent today. There is no privileges system for investor attraction to this branch.
Creation of the habitation proprietors companies (HPC) is a corner stone of housing-municipal reform. Realization of right to property through creation of numerous condominiums is one of the basic ways of formation of the proprietor in housing sphere. Consider emasculating people’s aspiration to purchase an available housing through practically whole last century, it is difficult to guarantee 100 % success. But there should be an aspiration to this. Only occurrence of real available housing proprietor will cause reforming of housing - municipal sphere, development of energy saving technologies, etc.
Creation of the habitation proprietors companies inside of a uniform complex of real estate (condominium), including the ground area and the residential building located on it till now is one of effective ways of protection habitation proprietors companies’ rights and organization of inhabited apartment house with various proprietors of separate premises management.
The amount of habitation in HPC and HCC (Housing Construction Cooperative) property is much less than amount of ones that are on states maintaining organizations balance. It is necessary to note, that 67 % of the states available housing is privatized. For March, 1, 2003 in Tatarstan Republic 189 HPC organizations are registered. 118 of them are in Kazan others - in rest republic. While during the period from the date of the HCP law (1996) acceptance till July, 1, 2002 there was 103 organizations. That states HPC registration growth for the last half-year. Thus, HCC number does not change, kept at a former level, - 414.
Involving of private business in sphere of available housing service could be one of the basic ways to creation conditions for HPC development in municipal available housing. Only a businessman can objectively estimate the expediency of creation HPC and act as an active conductor of inhabitants’ interests.
We can look at habitation proprietors companies development as at form of businessmen attraction to housing - municipal complex development. Enterprise development in the environment of proprietors of an available housing opens new sides of development and reproduction of housing sphere. Registration of habitation proprietors companies (67 % of habitation are privatized), in time condominium registration allows to find new reserves and sources of the maintenance of an available housing.
Initiative of proprietors of an available housing (HCC and HPC) of some areas of Kazan and an active support of ministry there helped to organize an Association of proprietors of habitation in Tatarstan Republic. Heads of initiative group of are technical sciences doctor Zastella M., medical sciences doctor Saljahova L., Oshmarina V.
Not only legal aspects, but also practical actions necessary for all proprietors became preconditions. The basic at the current stage is formation of a database for the subsequent grants payments to exempts and services suppliers.
Proprietors of an available housing initialized the creation of private managing company to service the HCC and HPC apartment houses’ tenants’ accounts. However, Kazan administrations heads decisions had limited proprietors’ of habitation rights to choose the managing companies among MUC "Rayzhilupravleniya". Thus, initiative of proprietors of an available housing (HCC and HPC) was constrained.
While available housing is transferred to management, categorization is necessary. Categorization is necessary by two basic criteria - the social standard and deterioration of an available housing. Part of habitation must be defined as "social". Not all citizens can contain habitation belonging to them by virtue of the certain circumstances (age, physical inability, a social way of life, etc.) today. In such habitation citizens of the listed categories will be settled. Habitation considerably exceeding the social standard (more than 18 m2 on the person) should be defined as "comfortable". "Standard" habitation should satisfy all social norms. Categorization of habitation will allow to determine the cost and quality of given services more fairly, and also to calculate differentially necessary volume of budgetary grants for its maintenance.
A few words about acceptance of an available housing. One of directions of researching reserves for managing organizations is disposal of not profile kinds of activity and objects of social sphere, including an available housing. The same thing is about agricultural branch, spheres of economy with low profitable manufacture and the bankrupt organizations.
At the same time it is necessary to understand that available housing cannot be left ownerless, without concrete owner. Today some organizations’ heads think that objects of housing sphere should be accepted by the states specialized organizations. Not at all! Housing - municipal sphere is one of republic’s economy branches too. And its condition plays an important role in becoming and development of economy as a whole. Transfer of an available housing from balance of the solvent organizations on fragile shoulders of the housing organizations is not panacea from all troubles. At the same time our supervision show, that disposal of an available housing had a little affect on economic condition of the transmitting organizations.
The solvent organizations may found the specialized organizations on service of an available housing and in their confidential management all available housing or to create HPC, fixing the real estate for proprietors through registration of condominiums. The organizations of budgetary sphere can make exception. Cottage type houses should be translated into a private property by the way of privatization or donation procedures. If tenants reject the privatization premises in comfortable apartment houses should be given.
Accepting the departmental habitation from organizations with profitable kinds of activity (oil and gas obtaining and processing organizations, chemical, alcohol making branches, etc.) indemnification on the maintenance and capital and current repairs (using organizations’ money) of a transmitted available housing should be foreseen.
Accepting the departmental habitation from the organizations with non-profitable manufacture (the budgetary organizations, a defensive complex, the organizations related to budgetary financing) indemnification from budgets of corresponding levels should be provided.
Accepting of departmental habitation from the organizations, which are recognized as insolvent (bankrupts) decisions of competitive manufacture providing indemnification on the maintenance of an available housing from realization of actives of the bankrupt organizations should be achieved.
Since actions on address social protection in housing - municipal services sphere of areas (cities) administrations are spent, division of functions of the customer and the contractor is accelerated. In twenty-eight (of 43) areas and two cities the managing companies are created. The aggregate number of them is 47. In rural areas they are created in the form of official body under the initiative of administrations in agreement with the ministry. In ten areas they are created as the state (municipal) unitary enterprises. Seven managing companies are private. In areas where the managing companies are not created, their functions are temporarily assigned to the specialized organizations serving an available housing. In all areas uniform financial settlements centers are created which also create preconditions for the organization of managing companies inside of them. The created managing companies actually are surveyors whose primary goal is decrease expenses on maintenance and operation of housing and communal services.
The managing companies’ creation will end the stage of customer’s and the contractor’s functions’ division. Orientation on employers’ and inhabitants’ needs regarding granting them housing services satisfaction should be the basic requirement at formation of managing. Speaking about law and managing, private organizations can become managing companies in cities, in rural areas at initial stage - official institutions.
Enterprises of small and average business are involved in the market of housing-and-municipal services. Competition on performance of works on the current and sanitary maintenance of Kazan’s available housing was held with participation of 173 organizations in January 2003. 62 of them won the competition. 51 of them are private. Reforming of attitudes in housing sphere in Nurlat area is quite active. All available housing of Nizhnekamsk and Nurlat earlier served by the state enterprise is transferred on private service.
Unfortunately, there is also a sad example - cancellation of the contract on service of an available housing Moscowsky district in Kazan with "Alan-plus" firm (A. Novodvorsky). Complicated relations with businessman Lifshitsec I. serving the oldest available housing and DUC of Nizhnekamsk are developed. The ministry frequently interferes in processes of formation of new mutual relations in the housing services market.
It is possible to result the experience of Open Company " Instroy " on management of an inhabited site "Innovator" (with an area of 38482 m2) in Kazan as a positive example of the private managing company. Here work on creation of house, microdistrict council and area councils (a prototype of local self-management) is done. 50% (3790,1 thousand m2) of Naberezhny Chelny’s municipal housing found are transferred to confidential management of "Remzhilstroy" (972,966 thousand m2), "Electrical engineers" (1138,587 thousand m2), "ZHEU" Kamstrojservis » (734,496 thousand m2), "ZHEU " Parity» (944,022 thousand m2) private companies. Contracts on gratuitous using with "Komservis" of 293,04 thousand m2 and «housing and communal services Nizhnekamsk» 6,9 thousand m2 are signed in Kama Glades.
We also think that overlapping by heads of territorial bodies of the ministry of functions of heads of again created managing companies in the form of official bodies is expedient to save the budgetary funds.
The honors worker of Russian Federation consumer services,
Second class main state counselor of Tatarstan Republic